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Acids, bases and salts

Learn how to define an acid, base and a salt. Understand where they come from and how to measure them.

Alchemy to chemistry - the start of a modern science

Isaac Newton would not have said he was a scientist, but he would have said he was an alchemist, or some who practised alchemy. In fact, it was not until 1833 that people began calling themselves...

An introduction to the periodic table

What is the periodic table? How do you read the periodic table?

Atomic structure

All atoms are composed of a small positively charged nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by a larger negatively charged electron cloud.

Atoms and atomic structures

This tutorial will step you through what atoms are made of and how they make other molecules and compounds. This unit also covers electrons, how are they structured and how do they behave? What is...

Atoms, molecules and compounds

Atoms are the basic building blocks of elements that still have the properties of the element. They are too small to be observed by the naked eye

Atoms, molecules and compounds quiz

Take this quiz and test your knowledge of atoms and elements.

Chemical bonding

How do chemicals form bonds to create molecules, compounds and more? Learn about different forms of chemical bonding, and how those bonds are broken, in this tutorial.

Chemical bonding quiz

Test your knowledge of ionic bonding here. 5 example questions with explanations and 25 quiz questions to challenge your knowledge.

Chemical bonding: ionic bonds

Ions are produced when electrons transfer entirely from one atom to another. These are charged species. The charge of an ion depends on whether the atom gains (negatively charged or anions) or loses...

Chemical equations

Chemical equations represent chemical reaction using symbols and letters. This tutorial will teach you what the properties of chemical equations are, how to read an equation as well as how to balance...


These resources for chemistry students will help you to improve your skills in areas such as electron configuration and chemical bonding.

Chemistry today

Why study chemistry? Chemistry is a vital part of creating the modern world. To understand the natural world, you need chemistry. From DNA to space flight, virtually all parts of science and...

Covalent bonds

Covalent bonds are formed between atoms by sharing electrons. In a covalent bond, the difference between the electronegativity of participating atoms is smaller than the ionic bonds. Covalent bonds...

Electron configuration quiz

Take this quiz and test your knowledge of electron configuration.

Exercise - units and conversions

Worked Exercises Write conversion factors for the following units: a) Litres and millilitres b) Ounces and grams.

Famous chemists and milestones

History of the periodic table

The periodic table is a single image that contains all the elements that we know exist in the universe. It classifies elements into categories and makes predictions about elements that have not yet...

Introduction to chemistry

This tutorial will take you through a quick tour of chemistry and finish with a self-assessment tool. The quiz will test your maths skills and point you to where you can brush up if you need to.

Language of chemistry

What is difference between a liquid, a gas and a solid? How does matter change between states? Learn the terms and names used in chemistry. Becoming fluent in chemistry will unlock many doors in...