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A1.1 Algebraic operations

This section introduces the basic skills for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (+ - × ÷) of algebraic expressions.

A1.3 Removing brackets

What do I do with the brackets? Brackets are useful to group numbers, pronumerals and operations together as a whole. Whatever is around the brackets affects all the things inside the brackets. View...

A1.4 Algebraic fractions: Addition and subtraction

How do I deal with fractions involving pronumerals? Adding and subtracting fractions always requires a common denominator (which is the lower half of the fraction). These need to be the same before...

A1.5 Algebraic fractions: Multiplication and division

What is an algebraic fraction? The numerator(top) or denominator(bottom) of a fraction can be in algebraic form involving numbers and variables (represented by pronumerals or letters). In this...

A2.1 Rearranging formulae

Learn how to manipulate or rearrange formulas that involve fractions and brackets.

A2.2 Rearranging formulas: Brackets and fractions

Rearranging formulas, also called transposition of formulas, is a necessary skill for most courses. This module provides essential skills in manipulating formulas.

A2.3 Transposition of formulas with challenges

Are you still trying to get that variable on its own from the formula, but it is in a tricky place – or maybe it appears more than once? Here we demonstrate manipulating or rearranging complex...


What is algebra? Why are there letters in the equation? Algebraic expressions involve pronumerals (letters) to represent values. Pronumerals can take many different values. We often need to plug...

Converting between large and small units

How do you convert between units? Nurses use units that begin with milli and micro a lot. If you express your dosage in a smaller unit, the number must get bigger, and vice versa. Find out how to...

Converting flow rates between mL/hr and dpm

How do you convert IV flow rates? In the previous video, we looked at converting between millilitres (ml) and drops. This time we are converting not only the volumes, (drops and mls) but the units...

Drop factor: converting between millilitres and drops

Drops are just another unit for measuring the amount of fluid flowing into a patient’s system. Discover what ‘drop factor’ means, and how to convert between millilitres and drops. 

Finding the volume required

What is volume required formula? This formula tells us how much liquid-form medication we need to give a patient, considering the strength they need and the source that it comes from. This tutorial...

Managing fractions and decimals

What do you do if the Flow Rate calculation involves fractions such as ¼ of an hour or 0.5 litres? Find out how this is managed mathematically.

Medication dosage by body weight

How do you deal with a unit like mg/kg? Milligrams per kilogram means that you must give a certain amount (mgs) of a drug for each kilogram of the patient’s body mass. Bigger patients need a bigger...

T1 Pythagoras’ theorem

Pythagoras’ Theorem shows the relationship between the sides of a right-angled triangle. Knowing the length of two sides of a right-angled triangle, the length of the third side can be calculated.

T2 Right triangle trigonometry

Sine, cos and tan can be defined using side lengths of a right-angled triangle. These side lengths are identified as either the hypotenuse or the opposite or adjacent sides to the angle.

T3 The sine rule

How can we apply trigonometry to triangles that do not possess a right-angle? The sine rule shows that the ratio of the length of a side, to the sine of its opposite angle, will be the same for all...

T4 Cosine rule

The cosine rule is a generalisation of Pythagoras’ theorem. If you have any two sides of a triangle, as long as you know the angle between them, you can calculate the length of the third side.

T5 Angular measurement and the unit circle

Angles are frequently measured in degrees. However, it is sometimes useful to define angles in terms of the length around the unit circle (a circle of radius = 1). This module introduces radians as a...

T7 Trigonometric equations

If you know the value of a trigonometric function, how do I find all the possible angles that satisfy this expression? The calculator may only give you one answer to an inverse trig question...